eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJlbmNyeXB0ZWQiOiJleUpoYkdjaU9pSklVekkxTmlJc0luUjVjQ0k2SWtwWFZDSjkuZXlKcFpDSTZNak1zSW1WdFlXbHNJam9pY21WMlFHVnVkR2hsYnk1cGJtWnZJaXdpYVdGMElqb3hOekF5TXpjek5UUXdMQ0psZUhBaU9qTTNNakF4TURjd09EQjkuTEZ2M0JIbkhRLVBnTFFMdTJvcjNqdE91TlVHZC1peHp1LXlLN2Fodzc1dyIsImlhdCI6MTcwMjM3MzU0MCwiZXhwIjozNzIwMTA3MDgwfQ.0zJrErIRDbnQMn8pBNqFhzkGRNYpMwF9h5lwzn5BXdA Magic Myc https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/assets/static/mushGpt/mushGpt-chat-bot.png

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Fireside Chat w/ Jim Fadiman: Sub-Threshold Over Sub-Perceptual Microdosing @ Discovery Sessions SF 2024

During an engaging Fireside Chat at the Discovery Sessions, Jim Fadiman, a renowned expert in entheogenic research, together with Jordan Gruber, explored the intricacies of microdosing psilocybin mushrooms. The session titled “Psychedelics, Microdosing & More” brought to light their most recent collaborative efforts captured in their latest book, focusing on advanced microdosing techniques that maximize therapeutic and creative benefits without noticeable entheogenic effects.

James Fadiman, widely recognized for his development of the Fadiman protocol for microdosing magic mushrooms, addressed questions regarding the ideal intensity of microdoses, advocating for doses that remain “sub-threshold” rather than “sub-perceptual” or higher. The dialogue introduced attendees to the concept of “sub-threshold” dosing—a more accurate description of the optimal level of microdosing.

“Originally, ‘sub-perceptual’ was used to describe doses that don’t significantly alter consciousness or induce intoxication,” Fadiman clarified. “However, based on continuous feedback and research, we’ve shifted towards ‘sub-threshold’ dosing, which is defined by its capacity to deliver benefits without crossing into perceptible psychedelic experiences.”

The concept of “sub-threshold” dosing reflects a refined understanding aimed at avoiding any overt entheogenic effects while ensuring the dose remains effective. Fadiman emphasized how such dosing allows individuals to maintain their daily routine without disruption, thereby supporting a productive day.

“If individuals begin to notice hallucinations or significant changes in perception, this indicates that the dose has exceeded the sub-threshold level,” Fadiman pointed out. He recommended reducing the dose or stopping altogether if adverse effects persist, noting that such reactions often stem from individual sensitivities to what is generally considered a standard dose.

This Fireside Chat marks a pivotal update in the approach to microdosing within the entheogenic community, providing a framework for both practitioners and researchers interested in the nuanced potential of entheogens administered in controlled, subtle doses. Fadiman and Gruber’s discussion highlighted the critical importance of precision in dosing in the complex field of entheogens.

Participants left the session equipped with a deeper understanding of how strategic and mindful microdosing can enhance mental health and everyday life, safely and effectively, under the guidance of experts like Fadiman and Gruber.

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Magic Mushrooms and Love and/or Sex?

While traditional expressions of affection often involve gifts and romantic gestures, some individuals may be curious about exploring alternative ways to deepen their connection and enhance their intimacy. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential role of entheogens, such as psilocybin mushrooms, as tools for personal growth and relationship enhancement. In this article, we will explore the topic of entheogens and intimacy, shedding light on their potential benefits and considerations.

The Power of Entheogens in Enhancing Connections
Entheogens, including psilocybin mushrooms, have been known to induce profound experiences that can foster a sense of openness, empathy, and connection. These substances have the ability to amplify emotions and heighten sensory perception, which can create a unique and transformative experience for couples. By promoting a state of mind that is receptive to love, joy, and empathy, entheogens may help individuals confront and process difficult emotions, leading to lasting therapeutic benefits.

Exploring Aphrodisiac Entheogens
While psilocybin mushrooms may not directly enhance sexual experiences, there are other entheogens that have been traditionally associated with aphrodisiac properties. It is important to note that the effects of these substances can vary greatly from person to person, and individual experiences may differ.

  1. Blue Lotus (Nymphaea caerulea) has a long history of use as an entheogen and aphrodisiac. It is believed to promote relaxation, enhance mood, and increase sensitivity to touch, potentially enhancing the overall sensual experience.
  2. Damiana: Damiana (Turnera diffusa) is a plant native to Central and South America. It has been traditionally used as an aphrodisiac and is believed to increase sexual desire and pleasure.
  3. Muira Puama: Muira Puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides) is a plant native to the Amazon rainforest. It has a reputation for enhancing libido and sexual function, making it a popular choice for those seeking a natural aphrodisiac.
  4. Maca: Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a root vegetable native to the Andes Mountains of Peru. It is known for its energizing and libido-enhancing properties, making it a popular choice for individuals looking to boost their sexual vitality.

A Time for Connection and Intimacy
While entheogens and aphrodisiacs can potentially enhance intimacy, it is crucial to approach their use with caution and respect. These substances should only be used in a safe and controlled environment, preferably under the guidance of a trained professional or therapist. It is essential to prioritize consent, open communication, and emotional safety when exploring new experiences with your partner.

Remember, intimacy is not solely about physical pleasure but also about emotional connection, trust, and vulnerability. Building a strong foundation of love and understanding is key to experiencing deeper levels of intimacy. Whether you choose to incorporate entheogens or explore other avenues, always prioritize the well-being and consent of both you and your partner.

As we celebrate love, it is important to remember that love and connection can be experienced in various ways. While entheogens and aphrodisiacs may offer unique opportunities for personal growth and enhanced intimacy, it is crucial to approach their use responsibly and with proper guidance. Ultimately, the most meaningful connections are built on trust, open communication, and emotional intimacy.


  1. Doc:The Magic Mushroom Seekers’ Guide to the Galaxy by Entheology Project. (sec.1299)
  2. Website: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050654/ by Roland R. Griffiths, William A. Richards, Matthew W. Johnson, Una D. Mccann, And Robert Jesse
  3. Doc:The Magic Mushroom Seekers’ Guide to the Galaxy by Entheology Project. (sec.1371)
  4. Doc:The Origins of Religion: as Reference to Sacred Mushrooms by Nicklas B. Failla. (p.125 sec.19)
  5. Doc:Experiences of psilocybin treatment for clinical conditions: A qualitative meta-synthesis by Marie Crowe, Jenni Manuel, Dave Carlyle, Cameron Lacey. (p.7 sec.116)
The Therapeutic Potential of Magnesium L-Threonate: Cognitive Enhancement and Its Role in Serotonergic Experiences

Magnesium L-Threonate, known as Magtein, has been the subject of various scientific studies due to its unique properties and potential health benefits. The research indicates that Magtein is particularly effective in enhancing cognitive functions, including memory and learning, by increasing brain magnesium levels. This increase in brain magnesium is linked to improved synaptic plasticity, which is crucial for cognitive health. Additionally, Magtein shows promise in neuroprotective aspects, potentially aiding in the prevention of age-related cognitive decline and neurological disorders by reducing brain inflammation and oxidative stress.

Furthermore, Magtein’s role in mood regulation and stress management has been explored, with studies suggesting that it may help in alleviating symptoms of anxiety and depression. In the context of serotonergic experiences, such as those induced by MDMA, Magtein’s cognitive and mood-stabilizing properties might theoretically assist in moderating the intensity of these experiences, although direct research in this area is still needed. The potential of Magtein to mitigate muscle and jaw cramping, commonly experienced during MDMA use, is also noted, likely due to its muscle relaxation properties.

The documents provided offer a detailed insight into the scientific understanding of Magnesium L-Threonate, highlighting its potential as a cognitive enhancer, neuroprotective agent, and a supplement that might have benefits during specific serotonergic experiences. However, further research is essential to fully understand its efficacy and safety in these contexts.

Introduction to Magnesium L-Threonate (Magtein)

Magnesium L-Threonate, commercially known as Magtein, is garnering significant interest in the scientific community for its unique cognitive benefits and neuroprotective properties. This novel form of magnesium, specifically designed for higher brain bioavailability, holds promise in several areas of mental and neurological health.

Cognitive Enhancement with Magtein

One of the most notable benefits of Magtein is its ability to enhance cognitive functions. The compound has been shown to effectively increase magnesium levels in the brain, which is crucial for maintaining synaptic plasticity – the foundation for learning and memory. By facilitating these neural processes, Magtein presents a potential breakthrough in improving cognitive capabilities, particularly memory and learning.

Neuroprotective Properties

Apart from cognitive enhancement, Magtein has demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects. Research indicates that it may offer protection against age-related cognitive decline and various neurological disorders. This protective mechanism is primarily attributed to its ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation within the brain, thereby preserving neuronal health and function.

Impact on Mood and Stress

Magnesium plays a vital role in regulating neurotransmitter systems, and Magtein’s impact on mood and stress management is a subject of increasing interest. Its supplementation has been associated with improved mood regulation and a reduction in symptoms related to anxiety and depression. This mood-stabilizing effect is particularly relevant in the context of mental health and well-being.

Magtein and Serotonergic Experiences

In the context of serotonergic experiences, such as those induced by MDMA, Magtein’s role becomes even more intriguing. While direct studies are limited, the cognitive and mood-regulating properties of Magtein suggest that it might assist in moderating the intensity of these experiences. Additionally, MDMA is known for its impact on serotonin levels in the brain, and Magtein’s potential neuroprotective benefits could be of significance in this context.

Reducing Muscle and Jaw Cramping During MDMA Experiences

A notable concern with MDMA use is muscle and jaw cramping, often manifesting as teeth grinding. Magnesium, including forms like Magtein, has been known to help mitigate these muscle tensions. Its role in muscle relaxation and nerve function could potentially reduce the intensity of such cramps during MDMA experiences, contributing to a more comfortable experience.

Safety Considerations and Recommendations

The safety profile of Magtein is supported by various studies, but its interaction with serotonergic agents like MDMA is not thoroughly established. It’s crucial for individuals considering Magtein use, especially in conjunction with substances like MDMA, to seek advice from healthcare professionals. The theoretical benefits, while promising, should be approached with caution until more research validates these interactions.


Magnesium L-Threonate presents a promising avenue for cognitive enhancement, neuroprotection, mood regulation, and potentially for mitigating some of the physical discomforts associated with MDMA use. As research continues to evolve, Magtein’s role in these areas may become clearer, offering new opportunities for therapeutic applications.


  1. https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.amazonaws.com/books/pdf/0e0f01a9-b21d-4d2b-87b3-f3815ad2a1aa.pdf
  2. https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.amazonaws.com/books/pdf/22934480-fa96-4634-8d14-c9bab9dea0d6.pdf
  3. https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.amazonaws.com/books/pdf/4a5a8770-6136-4dc4-99ac-6f4d127c15ae.pdf
  4. https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.amazonaws.com/books/pdf/0d9f0f6a-1da8-4c58-ac14-a8aee790c8f2.pdf
Is Sublingual Psilocin the Next Leap in Entheogenic Therapy?



The emerging field of entheogenic facilitation has witnessed the advent of sublingual psilocin as a novel method for administering the active compound found in psilocybin mushrooms. This technique, which entails placing the substance beneath the tongue to allow for direct absorption into the bloodstream, is becoming increasingly favored for its potential to mitigate inconsistent potencies and gastrointestinal disturbances often associated with traditional consumption. Yet, alongside its benefits, sublingual psilocin brings forth critical safety and responsible usage concerns that require attention.

Irregular Potency and GI Side Effects of Mushrooms

Users of psilocybin mushrooms often encounter unpredictable variations in strength, complicating the ability to foresee the intensity of the resulting entheogenic state. Such unpredictability can culminate in unexpectedly potent experiences or a complete lack thereof, which can lead to a sense of isolation or disappointment during group sessions.

Furthermore, ingesting psilocybin mushrooms can provoke gastrointestinal discomfort, including nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, detracting from the user’s overall experience and focus during the entheogenic journey.

The Sublingual Psilocin Solution

Sublingual psilocin has the potential to overcome these hurdles. By circumventing the digestive system, it promises a reduction in gastrointestinal side effects. Additionally, its direct entry into the circulatory system could offer more uniform and reliable effects, presenting an intriguing alternative for those seeking a consistent entheogenic experience.

Harm Reduction Points for Sublingual Psilocin

  1. Dosage: Initial doses should be conservative to gauge individual reactions to sublingual psilocin. Remember that additional doses can be taken, but the effects of an excessive initial dose cannot be reversed.
  2. Set and Setting: The importance of a secure, tranquil environment surrounded by trusted individuals cannot be overstated, as both mental state and setting are pivotal to the entheogenic experience.
  3. Supervision: Whenever feasible, the presence of a sober, knowledgeable guide is advisable to assist with any demanding experiences that may arise.
  4. Health Considerations: Prior to engaging with sublingual psilocin, consulting a healthcare professional is crucial, particularly for those with mental health histories or those on concurrent medications.
  5. Legal Considerations: Awareness of the legal context surrounding psilocybin and psilocin in one’s region is essential. Despite the burgeoning recognition of their therapeutic promise, these substances remain under legal scrutiny and are prohibited in numerous jurisdictions.


As a contemporary alternative to psilocybin mushrooms, sublingual psilocin extends the possibility of more predictable and smoother entheogenic experiences. Nevertheless, its responsible application and the cognizance of associated risks are paramount for a secure and enriching encounter. Adhering to harm reduction principles ensures the well-being and positive outcomes for those exploring the depths of sublingual psilocin therapy.


  1. Johnson, M., Richards, W., Griffiths, R., 2008. Human hallucinogen research: guidelines for safety. J. Psychopharmacol. 22 (6), 603 – 620.
  2. Johnson, M.W., Griffiths, R.R., Hendricks, P.S., Henningfield, J.E., 2018. The abuse potential of medical psilocybin according to the 8 factors of the Controlled Substances Act.
  3. Johnson, M.W., Hendricks, P.S., Barrett, F.S., Griffiths, R.R., 2019. Classic psychedelics: an integrative review of epidemiology, therapeutics, mystical experience, and brain network function. Pharmacol. Ther. 197, 83 – 102.
  4. Lamb, R.J., Griffiths, R.R., 1987. Self-injection of d,1-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the baboon. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 91 (3), 268 – 272.
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4813425/
  6. 1-s2.0-S0028390822002799-main.pdf, p. 17, pos. 166
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8602275/
  8. lsdmyproblemchild.pdf, p. 57, pos. 44
Exploring Ceremonial Cacao: The Myths and Realities of Bean Types and Theobromine Effects


Ceremonial cacao is experiencing a surge in popularity as a spiritual and healing plant medicine. Despite its growing use, misconceptions about ceremonial cacao, its origins, the types of beans used, and the effects of its compounds, particularly theobromine, persist. This paper aims to clarify these points, focusing on the production of theobromine in fermented vs. unfermented cacao beans, and discussing the varying levels of theobromine in each type.

Cacao Beans and Ceremonial Cacao:

Cacao beans, seeds of the Theobroma cacao tree, are indigenous to Central and South America. They are the fundamental ingredient in both chocolate and ceremonial cacao, the latter being cultivated, harvested, and processed with specific intentions for use in spiritual or ceremonial contexts.

Fermented vs Unfermented Cacao Beans:

Fermentation is a pivotal step in chocolate production that also impacts the composition of theobromine in cacao beans.

Additionally, a process known as “cacao lavado” involves washing fermented beans to remove any remaining pulp, potentially leading to a cleaner, milder flavor. While this method is often employed in specialty cacao production, its influence on theobromine content remains understudied.

Potential Benefits of Unfermented Cacao:

However, these claims are primarily anecdotal, and scientific research in this area is limited.

Theobromine and Caffeine in Cacao Beans:

Differences in Theobromine Levels:

Theobromine levels in cacao beans are influenced by the bean variety, growing conditions, fermentation, and processing. While both fermented and unfermented beans contain theobromine, the levels may vary.


For those intrigued by ceremonial cacao, understanding the production of theobromine in different cacao bean types is essential. Fermentation significantly influences flavor development and the composition of bioactive compounds, including theobromine. Further research is needed to explore the specific effects of theobromine and caffeine in ceremonial cacao and their contributions to the overall experience.


  1. Efraim P, et al. Influence of cocoa beans fermentation and drying on the polyphenol content and sensory acceptance. Ciência e Tecnologia em Alimentos. 2010.
  2. Hernandez CH, et al. Evaluation of different fermentation processes for use by small cocoa growers in Mexico. Food Sci Nutr. 2016.
  3. Smit, H. J., & Blackburn, R. J. Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate. Psychopharmacology, 2005.
  4. Bogaard, B. V. D., et al. Effects of peripheral and central blood pressure of cocoa with natural or high-dose theobromine: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. Hypertension, 2010.
  5. Kelly, C. J. Effects of theobromine should be considered in future studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2015.
  6. Usmani, O. S., et al. Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough. The FASEB Journal.
  7. Grases, F., et al. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. Potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PLoS One, 2014.
Exploring the Potential Benefits and Ensuring Safe Consumption of Amanita Muscaria

I. Introduction:

Amanita Muscaria, commonly known as fly agaric, is a psychoactive mushroom revered in various cultures for spiritual and healing purposes. This article aims to explore the potential therapeutic benefits of its primary psychoactive constituent, Muscimol, while emphasizing the importance of safety in its use.

II. Chemical Composition of Amanita Muscaria:

Amanita Muscaria contains two key psychoactive compounds: ibotenic acid and muscimol. The decarboxylation process, typically induced by drying, converts ibotenic acid into muscimol, responsible for the mushroom’s psychoactive effects.

III. Potential Benefits of Amanita Muscaria (Muscimol):

  1. Anxiolytic Effects: Research in “Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior” (2013) showed that muscimol reduced anxiety-like behavior in rats, highlighting its potential anxiolytic properties.
  2. Similarities to Ethanol Effects: A 2004 study in “European Journal of Pharmacology” found muscimol produced effects similar to ethanol, such as sedation, hypothermia, and motor impairment, indicating its role in understanding alcohol-like effects on GABAA receptors.
  3. Neuroprotective Properties: Emerging research suggests muscimol might offer neuroprotective benefits, possibly aiding in managing neurodegenerative diseases.
  4. Treatment of Cerebral Ischemia: Studies indicate muscimol’s potential role in treating cerebral ischemia due to its protective properties.
  5. Mental Health Applications: Anecdotal evidence points to introspective and insightful experiences, though scientific validation is pending.

IV. Safety Issues and Precautions:

  1. Toxicity Concerns: Presence of ibotenic acid raises toxicity concerns; high doses can lead to poisoning.
  2. Decarboxylation Process: Transforming ibotenic acid into less toxic muscimol is essential, usually achieved through drying.
  3. Preparation and Extraction: Correct preparation and extraction are crucial for safe consumption.
  4. Dosage and Setting: Advisable to start with a low dose and increase gradually; setting and having a trusted sitter are crucial for safety.
  5. Legal Considerations: Varying legal status necessitates understanding local laws.

V. Conclusion:

Amanita Muscaria, particularly its muscimol content, presents intriguing potential benefits, especially in neuroprotection and treating cerebral ischemia. However, these benefits are accompanied by potential toxicity risks, necessitating careful preparation and consumption. Adherence to safety guidelines, legal considerations, and expert advice is essential for anyone exploring the properties of Amanita Muscaria.


  1. “Effects of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, on anxiety-like behavior in rats” (Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2013).
  2. “Muscimol, a psychoactive agent of Amanita muscaria, mimics the neurochemical and behavioral effects of acute ethanol ingestion” (European Journal of Pharmacology, 2004).
  3. “The pharmacology of Amanita muscaria” (Ethnopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs, 1979).
  4. Voynova, M., et al. (2020). Toxicological and pharmacological profile of Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam. Pharmacia.
  5. Tatsuta, M., et al. (1992). Protection by muscimol against gastric carcinogenesis. International Journal of Cancer.
  6. Wang, S., et al. (2017). Protective roles of hepatic GABA signaling in acute liver injury of rats. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.
  7. Waser, P. (1979). In Ethnopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs.
Navigating the Stages of a Macro/High-Dose Magic Mushroom Journey


Entheogenic mushrooms, known scientifically as Psilocybe species, have a rich history of use across various cultures for spiritual and self-betterment. A macrodose, usually between 2 to 4 grams of dried mushrooms (@ 1% avg potency), can facilitate a profound, transformative experience. This article offers guidance through the distinct stages of a macro magic mushroom journey and suggests self-improvement activities to enrich the experience.

Onset (15-20 minutes after ingestion)

This initial phase is characterized by a burgeoning sense of the mushrooms’ effects, potentially causing feelings of anticipation or nervousness.

Activity: Mindful Breathing

Mindful breathing exercises can be valuable in this phase to alleviate any initial excitement or apprehension, anchoring the individual in the present moment.

Come Up (60 minutes after ingestion)

In this stage, the effects start to intensify, leading to possible alterations in perception, such as heightened colors or patterns.

Activity: Journaling

Journaling can serve as a profound tool for self-exploration in this stage. Recording thoughts, emotions, and arising insights can aid in processing the experience and integrating the learnings into everyday life subsequently.

Peak (1-2 hour after ingestion)

This is the zenith of the journey, where individuals might traverse a spectrum of emotions and possibly encounter profound insights or spiritual revelations.

Activity: Guided Meditation

A guided meditation can assist in steering through the heightened experiences of this phase. Selecting a meditation that aligns with self-improvement themes, like self-love or forgiveness, can be particularly impactful.

Come Down (3-4 hours after ingestion)

This phase marks the gradual diminishment of effects, ushering a time for reflection and assimilation of insights and experiences acquired during the journey.

Activity: Nature Walk

Embarking on a gentle walk amidst nature can be therapeutic during the come-down, providing an opportunity for reflection and reconnection with the natural world.

Afterglow (6-12 hours after ingestion)

The afterglow is the lingering sense of peace, clarity, or a renewed perspective on life experienced after the main effects have worn off.

Activity: Artistic Expression

Engaging in artistic endeavors during the afterglow can be a potent means to encapsulate the experience. The non-verbal expression through drawing, painting, or music can facilitate the processing and communication of insights.


Undertaking a macro magic mushroom journey can be a substantial expedition of self-discovery and personal evolution. Incorporating self-improvement activities at each stage can amplify the journey and aid in embedding the gleaned insights into everyday life. It is crucial to engage in these experiences with reverence, in secure and supportive surroundings, and with the counsel of an informed entheogenic facilitator.


Magic Mushrooms Safety: A Guide to Responsible Use and Populations at Risk


This article aims to raise awareness about the safe and responsible use of magic mushrooms, known scientifically as Psilocybe species. While research has shown potential therapeutic benefits for conditions like depression, anxiety, and PTSD, it’s crucial to be aware of the risks involved. Key points include the danger of misidentifying mushroom species, the importance of the psychological and environmental context (“set and setting”), and the need for caution among those with pre-existing mental health conditions. Additionally, the article discusses the legal ramifications of mushroom use and the risks of combining them with other substances.

“Magic mushrooms,” scientifically known as Psilocybe species, have been a part of traditional healing and spiritual practices for centuries. Recent research has pointed to their potential for treating a range of medical conditions, including depression, anxiety, PTSD, addiction, cluster headaches, and anorexia nervosa 1. However, while these mushrooms are not toxic in the traditional sense, misuse can lead to several types of harm. This blog aims to create awareness about the safety precautions one should take while considering the use of magic mushrooms.

The Risks of Misidentification

One of the primary risks associated with magic mushrooms is the danger of consuming the wrong species. Certain mushrooms are highly toxic and can lead to severe illness or even death if ingested 2. Always consult experts and ensure proper identification before consuming any wild mushrooms.

The Importance of “Set and Setting”

The “set and setting” — that is, your mindset and environment — play a vital role in shaping your experience with magic mushrooms. Being in a supportive, safe, and familiar environment can greatly enhance the experience. On the other hand, using mushrooms in a chaotic or stressful setting can lead to paranoia, anxiety, and risky behavior3.

Pre-existing Mental Health Conditions

Individuals with pre-existing mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, should exercise extreme caution. Consuming psilocybin mushrooms can exacerbate symptoms and worsen the condition 4.

Psychological Preparedness

Magic mushrooms induce significant alterations in perception, mood, and thought. If you are not mentally prepared for these intense experiences, you could find them distressing or even traumatic 5.

Risk of Accidents

The altered state of consciousness created by psilocybin mushrooms significantly increases the risk of accidents and injuries. This risk is heightened if you attempt to drive or operate machinery while under the influence 6.

Legal Ramifications

It’s essential to note that in many places, psilocybin mushrooms are classified as a controlled substance. Possession, cultivation, or distribution could lead to severe legal consequences 7.

Combining with Other Substances

Mixing psilocybin mushrooms with other substances like alcohol or prescription medications can lead to unpredictable and potentially harmful effects 8.


Magic mushrooms have potential therapeutic benefits but should be used responsibly and cautiously. Always do your research, consult healthcare providers when appropriate, and be aware of your mental and physical state before embarking on this journey. Special caution should be exercised by individuals with pre-existing mental health conditions, those in stressful environments, or those considering combining mushrooms with other substances.


  1. Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Goodwin, G. M. (2017). The therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs: past, present, and future. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(11), 2105-2113.
  2. Benjamin, D. R. (1995). Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas—a handbook for naturalists, mycologists, and physicians. WH Freeman and Company.
  3. Hartogsohn, I. (2016). Set and setting, psychedelics and the placebo response: An extra-pharmacological perspective on psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(12), 1259-1267.
  4. Carbonaro, T. M., & Gatch, M. B. (2016). Neuropharmacology of N, N-dimethyltryptamine. Brain research bulletin, 126, 74-88.
  5. Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Nutt, D. J. (2010). User perceptions of the benefits and harms of hallucinogenic drug use: a web-based questionnaire study. Journal of Substance Use, 15(4), 283-300.
  6. Hallock, R. M., Dean, A., Knecht, Z. A., Spencer, J., & Taverna, E. C. (2013). A survey of hallucinogenic mushroom use, factors related to usage, and perceptions of use among college students. Drug and alcohol dependence, 130(1-3), 245-248.
  7. Nutt, D., King, L. A., & Nichols, D. E. (2013). Effects of Schedule I drug laws on neuroscience research and treatment innovation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(8), 577-585.
  8. Johnson, M. W., Richards, W. A., & Griffiths, R. R. (2008). Human hallucinogen research: guidelines for safety. Journal of psychopharmacology, 22(6), 603-620.
Healing the Mind: The Role of the Hippocampus in Memory and PTSD

The hippocampus, a region tucked within the medial temporal lobe of the brain, is a vital player in memory formation and spatial navigation. It is also one of the brain areas capable of neurogenesis—creating new neurons—which significantly contributes to memory. Various studies have revealed that a smaller hippocampus is often found in individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This suggests a relationship between hippocampal size and mental health, although it is not yet clear whether a smaller hippocampus is a consequence of PTSD or a predisposing factor.

Healing the Hippocampus: Hope for All Ages

There are promising avenues for increasing hippocampal size and function, irrespective of age:

  1. Physical Exercise: Aerobic activities like walking and running have been shown to enlarge the hippocampus and improve memory.
  2. Healthy Diet: Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats, like the Mediterranean diet, may contribute to hippocampal health.
  3. Mindfulness and Meditation: These practices have been associated with increased hippocampal density.
  4. Cognitive Stimulation: Activities like puzzles, reading, or learning new skills can stimulate hippocampal growth.

Special Considerations: Psilocybin and Memory

Emerging science suggests that psilocybin, a naturally occurring psychedelic, may stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis and aid in the reconsolidation of traumatic memories. This makes it an intriguing potential treatment for conditions like PTSD. However, it’s crucial to note that more research is required, and the effects can vary from person to person.

Who Stands to Gain the Most?

  1. Elderly Individuals: As age-related hippocampal shrinkage is a factor in cognitive decline, the elderly could benefit greatly from these interventions.
  2. Patients with PTSD or Chronic Stress: Given the link between PTSD and hippocampal size, these individuals may find these strategies especially beneficial.
  3. Individuals with Memory Impairments: Whether due to trauma or other neurological conditions, these individuals could see marked improvements.


The hippocampus plays a critical role in our ability to form and retrieve memories, and its health can be compromised by various factors, including aging and stress. However, the potential for improvement and even reversal of hippocampal-related issues is promising. The prospect of harnessing lifestyle changes and emerging treatments like psilocybin offers hope for individuals across age groups.

“Rev” Hooman
Founder / Entheology Project
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The Power of GABA and Amanita Mushrooms in Shaping Depression, Sleep, Mood and Anxiety

In this illuminating exploration into the shifting sands of mental health research, the focus moves away from serotonin to the emerging importance of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and muscimol 1. The article delves into how these molecules regulate mood, sleep, and anxiety, thereby challenging existing paradigms 2-3. From discussing natural ways to enhance GABA’s effects to investigating the untapped potential of muscimol, this comprehensive guide stands at the cusp of a transformative shift in mental health understanding 4-5. The article advocates for a cautious, evidence-based approach, acknowledging that these are early yet promising days in neuroscience.

The Role of GABA and Its Importance

There’s a growing consensus that GABA may be as important as serotonin in understanding conditions like depression. GABA serves as the brain’s calming agent, and imbalances can lead to a range of neurological issues:

GABA’s role is complex, and it’s just one piece of a larger puzzle.

Natural Ways to Enhance GABA

GABA is found in foods like tomatoes and white tea and can be boosted through various strategies:

Muscimol: The Newcomer on the Block

Muscimol, a derivative of Amanita pantherina mushrooms, is garnering attention for:

Benefits of Muscimol Over Alcohol

  1. Liver Health: One of the most significant advantages is the reduced strain on the liver, as muscimol doesn’t have the toxic effects commonly associated with alcohol.
  2. Cognitive Function: Unlike alcohol, which can impair cognitive abilities and decision-making, muscimol has shown promise in potentially enhancing certain cognitive functions.
  3. Caloric Intake: Alcohol is notoriously high in empty calories, contributing to weight gain. Muscimol has no such effect, making it a better choice for those conscious of their weight.
  4. Reduced Risk of Addiction: While further research is needed, early indications suggest that muscimol may have a lower potential for abuse and addiction compared to alcohol.
  5. Social Ease: An intriguing benefit of muscimol is its potential to facilitate easier social interactions, without the negative repercussions often associated with alcohol, such as aggression or impaired judgment.

Precautions and Future Research

It’s worth noting that while muscimol presents an exciting alternative to alcohol, it is a potent compound that requires responsible use and further study. The long-term effects are not yet fully understood, and it’s advisable to consult healthcare professionals before making any changes to your lifestyle or treatment plan.

By exploring healthier alternatives like muscimol, we may be taking a significant step toward a future where socializing and relaxation can be achieved without compromising our long-term health.

References and Sources

  1. Frontiers in Neuroscience 2020; 14: 923
  2. Cleveland Clinic, GABA
  3. Neuropharmacology January 2012; 62(1): 42-53
  4. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics September 14, 2017
  5. Big Think September 25, 2017
  6. Molecular Psychiatry July 20, 2022 DOI: 10.1038/s41380-022-01661-0
  7. Haidut.me August 1, 2023
  8. WSJ July 28, 2023
  9. ZeroHedge July 31, 2023
  10. http://haidut.me/?p=2302
  11. krediet-et-al-ijnp-2020.pdf, p. 13, pos. 298
  12. Molecular Psychiatry July 20, 2022 DOI: 10.1038/s41380-022-01661-0
  13. WSJ July 28, 2023
  14. ZeroHedge July 31, 2023
  15. The BMJ 20155; 350: h2435

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