eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJlbmNyeXB0ZWQiOiJleUpoYkdjaU9pSklVekkxTmlJc0luUjVjQ0k2SWtwWFZDSjkuZXlKcFpDSTZNak1zSW1WdFlXbHNJam9pY21WMlFHVnVkR2hsYnk1cGJtWnZJaXdpYVdGMElqb3hOekF5TXpjek5UUXdMQ0psZUhBaU9qTTNNakF4TURjd09EQjkuTEZ2M0JIbkhRLVBnTFFMdTJvcjNqdE91TlVHZC1peHp1LXlLN2Fodzc1dyIsImlhdCI6MTcwMjM3MzU0MCwiZXhwIjozNzIwMTA3MDgwfQ.0zJrErIRDbnQMn8pBNqFhzkGRNYpMwF9h5lwzn5BXdA Magic Myc https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/assets/static/mushGpt/mushGpt-chat-bot.png

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Fireside Chat w/ Jim Fadiman: Sub-Threshold Over Sub-Perceptual Microdosing @ Discovery Sessions SF 2024

During an engaging Fireside Chat at the Discovery Sessions, Jim Fadiman, a renowned expert in entheogenic research, together with Jordan Gruber, explored the intricacies of microdosing psilocybin mushrooms. The session titled “Psychedelics, Microdosing & More” brought to light their most recent collaborative efforts captured in their latest book, focusing on advanced microdosing techniques that maximize therapeutic and creative benefits without noticeable entheogenic effects.

James Fadiman, widely recognized for his development of the Fadiman protocol for microdosing magic mushrooms, addressed questions regarding the ideal intensity of microdoses, advocating for doses that remain “sub-threshold” rather than “sub-perceptual” or higher. The dialogue introduced attendees to the concept of “sub-threshold” dosing—a more accurate description of the optimal level of microdosing.

“Originally, ‘sub-perceptual’ was used to describe doses that don’t significantly alter consciousness or induce intoxication,” Fadiman clarified. “However, based on continuous feedback and research, we’ve shifted towards ‘sub-threshold’ dosing, which is defined by its capacity to deliver benefits without crossing into perceptible psychedelic experiences.”

The concept of “sub-threshold” dosing reflects a refined understanding aimed at avoiding any overt entheogenic effects while ensuring the dose remains effective. Fadiman emphasized how such dosing allows individuals to maintain their daily routine without disruption, thereby supporting a productive day.

“If individuals begin to notice hallucinations or significant changes in perception, this indicates that the dose has exceeded the sub-threshold level,” Fadiman pointed out. He recommended reducing the dose or stopping altogether if adverse effects persist, noting that such reactions often stem from individual sensitivities to what is generally considered a standard dose.

This Fireside Chat marks a pivotal update in the approach to microdosing within the entheogenic community, providing a framework for both practitioners and researchers interested in the nuanced potential of entheogens administered in controlled, subtle doses. Fadiman and Gruber’s discussion highlighted the critical importance of precision in dosing in the complex field of entheogens.

Participants left the session equipped with a deeper understanding of how strategic and mindful microdosing can enhance mental health and everyday life, safely and effectively, under the guidance of experts like Fadiman and Gruber.

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4-ACO-DMT Shortage Leads to New Knockoffs – Mushroom Prices Plummet!

The entheogenic market is currently undergoing a significant transition, underscored by the contrasting production costs and efficiencies between organic mushroom extracts and synthetic alternatives like 5-AcO-DET. For example, producing a 25mg psilocybin-infused chocolate bar using organic extracts, with a mere 2% potency, incurs an approximate cost of $12.40, largely due to the considerable volume needed to achieve the desired dose. In contrast, the utilization of 5-AcO-DET, boasting a 99.5% purity, dramatically reduces the cost per bar to around $2.25, not only demonstrating the economic advantage but also highlighting the potential for enhanced consistency and dosage control. This stark disparity underscores a broader market inclination towards synthetic entheogens, propelled by their cost-effectiveness, potency, and the pursuit of standardized therapeutic outcomes, marking a pivotal moment for both producers and consumers within the psychedelic sphere.

In the ever-evolving landscape of psychedelic substances, a notable trend is the burgeoning shift towards synthetic alternatives, exemplified by compounds like 4-AcO-DET. This movement, while fostering interest, also stirs concerns among both enthusiasts and scholars. Natural psilocybin, derived from mushrooms, has been lauded for its therapeutic potential—a sentiment echoed by research in Molecular Psychiatry, which demonstrates its efficacy in psychiatric therapy. However, synthetic alkaloids are carving a niche for themselves, distinguished by their ease of access and ambiguous regulatory status. This dichotomy between synthetic psilocybin and natural mushroom extract is further highlighted by their distinct impacts on brain proteins linked to learning and memory, with mushroom extract demonstrating a more profound and enduring effect. Moreover, the unique influence on brain metabolism hints at a divergence in how each variant modulates stress and energy pathways, suggesting that natural extracts may offer supplementary benefits over their synthetic counterparts and inviting more in-depth investigation into these distinctions.

Amidst this shifting landscape, the dialogue surrounding synthetic versus organic alkaloids centers on aspects of purity, effect predictability, and therapeutic value. Synthetics, with their promise of controlled dosage and broader accessibility, nevertheless lack the intricate array of compounds present in natural sources, which might play a crucial role in the holistic therapeutic experience. This ongoing debate accentuates the imperative for further research into both synthetic and natural psychedelics to fully comprehend their potential and implications for mental health treatments.

Complicating the narrative of psychedelic research and usage is the emergent concern over unregulated head shops. These entities, often navigating through legal gray areas, have become key distributors of novel substances like 4-AcO-DET, exploiting the compound’s elusive status to circumvent established regulatory frameworks. This scenario not only hinders efforts to safeguard the quality and safety of psychedelic substances but also rings alarm bells over the ease of access to these powerful compounds, especially for minors. The absence of rigorous oversight and standardized testing protocols opens the door to the potential misuse of psychedelics, underscoring the pressing need for comprehensive policies that tackle the sale and distribution of novel psychoactive substances while prioritizing public health and safety.

Engaging with the black market for entheogens, encompassing both organic and synthetic psychedelics, introduces formidable risks that extend beyond mere legal implications. The recent debacle involving the Incognito darknet market, as detailed by Krebs on Security, starkly illustrates the inherent perils. Following an “exit scam” by its administrators, which saw them absconding with millions in cryptocurrency, they proceeded to mass-extort users, threatening to disclose sensitive transaction and chat logs unless a ransom was paid. This alarming scheme puts countless users in jeopardy, exposing them to potential legal repercussions, privacy violations, and personal harm. Such incidents vividly showcase the hazardous realities of navigating the black market, emphasizing the need for caution and highlighting the darker facets of accessing entheogens outside sanctioned and regulated channels. To gain a more comprehensive insight into this incident, consulting the article on Krebs on Security is highly recommended.

The debate between synthetic and organic alkaloids revolves around purity, the predictability of effects, and therapeutic value. Synthetics, while offering a controlled dosage and easier accessibility, lack the complex array of compounds found in natural sources, which may contribute to the overall therapeutic experience. This discussion underscores the need for more research into both synthetic and natural psychedelics to understand their full potential and implications for mental health treatments. Amidst the evolving landscape of psychedelic research and use, the role of unregulated head shops has emerged as a significant concern. These establishments, often operating in legal gray areas, have become conduits for the distribution of new substances like 4-AcO-DET, leveraging the compound’s “non-detectable” status to bypass existing regulatory frameworks. This situation not only complicates efforts to ensure the safety and quality of psychedelic substances but also raises alarms about the accessibility of these potent compounds to minors. Without stringent oversight and standardized testing protocols, unregulated head shops can inadvertently contribute to the misuse of psychedelics, underscoring the urgent need for comprehensive policies that address the sale and distribution of novel psychoactive substances while protecting public health and safety.

The shift from 4-AcO-DMT to 4-AcO-DET in the production of psychedelic substances can also be attributed to operational risks encountered by manufacturers. Specifically, the crackdown on the precursor chemicals required for synthesizing 4-AcO-DMT, marked by significant legal actions including busts, has made these precursors “flagged” and monitored more closely by authorities. This heightened scrutiny led those involved in the large-scale production of 4-AcO-DMT to halt their operations, seeking alternative compounds that could circumvent these new challenges.

In this context, 4-AcO-DET has become the compound of choice for several reasons. It shares a very similar psychoactive profile with 4-AcO-DMT, offering comparable effects and dosages, which makes it an attractive alternative for both producers and users seeking similar experiences. However, a key advantage of 4-AcO-DET lies in its current status regarding drug testing methodologies, particularly High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Due to the lack of established standards for 4-AcO-DET, it does not show conclusive results on HPLC screenings, making it more difficult to detect and therefore more appealing for clandestine production. This transition reflects a strategic shift within the psychedelic substance market, driven by the desire to continue operations amidst increasing regulatory pressures and the evolving landscape of drug enforcement and detection.

4-AcO-DET - Wikipedia

Understanding Non-Detectable Psilocybin Analogues:Non-detectable psilocybin analogues, like 4-AcO-DET, are synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of psilocybin, the psychoactive ingredient in certain species of mushrooms. 4-AcO-DET stands for 4-Acetoxy-N,N-diethyltryptamine, a molecule closely related to psilocybin and psilocin (the compound into which psilocybin is converted in the body). These analogues are considered “non-detectable” due to the current limitations in drug testing technology, which often do not include specific standards for identifying these newer synthetic compounds.

The Chemistry and Effects of 4-AcO-DET: 4-AcO-DET features a chemical structure with an acetoxy group attached to the indole ring of the tryptamine backbone, similar to psilocin. This structural similarity suggests that 4-AcO-DET acts as a prodrug to psilocin, meaning it is metabolized into psilocin in the body, thereby producing effects similar to those of psilocybin. Users of 4-AcO-DET report experiences of euphoria, visual hallucinations, altered perception of time and space, and profound changes in thought and emotion, which closely parallel the psychedelic experience induced by psilocybin mushrooms.

Shift in Production from 4-AcO-DMT to 4-AcO-DET:For those recently familiarizing themselves with the psychedelic compound 4-AcO-DMT, it’s noteworthy that its production has significantly dwindled. This change came about as the precursors for 4-AcO-DMT were flagged following a high-profile bust, causing producers to pivot towards synthesizing 4-AcO-DET instead. 4-AcO-DET, while offering the same psychedelic effects and dosages as 4-AcO-DMT, remains challenging to detect using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) due to the lack of a standardized testing method. However, users should note that 4-AcO-DET has a slightly more bitter taste, necessitating adjustments in formulations, such as the addition of bitter blockers in edibles.

Challenges and Considerations: The classification of 4-AcO-DET and similar compounds as “non-detectable” raises important considerations regarding safety, legality, and research. The absence of standardized tests for these substances complicates efforts to understand their full pharmacological profile, potential risks, and therapeutic benefits. Moreover, the legal status of such compounds can vary significantly across different jurisdictions, often lagging behind the pace of new substance development and discovery.

The therapeutic potential of these analogues, mirroring that of psilocybin, opens up new avenues for research into mental health treatments. However, the novelty and variability of these compounds necessitate a cautious approach, emphasizing the importance of controlled studies to elucidate their efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action.

The exploration of non-detectable psilocybin analogues like 4-AcO-DET represents a fascinating frontier in psychedelic research, offering both challenges and opportunities. While these substances promise to expand our understanding of psychedelic pharmacology and its potential applications, they also underscore the need for advancements in detection methodologies, regulatory frameworks, and scientific research. As we continue to investigate these compounds, a balanced approach that considers both their potential benefits and risks will be crucial in harnessing their full potential.


  1. 4-AcO-DMT by Albert Hofmann And Franz Troxler
  2. Effect of chemically synthesized psilocybin and psychedelic mushroom extract on molecular and metabolic profiles in mouse brain
  3. Mushroom Extract Outperforms Synthetic Psilocybin in Psychiatric Therapy
  4. Incognito Darknet Market Mass-Extorts Buyers, Sellers
4-ACO Killed the Psilocybe Star: The Economic Divide in Entheogenic Treatment

The recent steps taken by Tucson, Arizona, to legalize psilocybin mushrooms mark a significant moment in the evolving relationship between society and entheogenic substances. This legislation was introduced with the hope of unlocking the therapeutic benefits of psilocybin, making them accessible and safe for those in need. However, the aftermath of this decision reveals a complex narrative that underscores a growing concern: the economic divide in entheogenic therapy that pushes marginalized communities toward self-dosing with inferior and cheaper products.

The Rise of 4-ACO-DMT and the Economic Implications

Following the legalization, an unexpected shift occurred within the illicit market. The focus turned sharply towards 4-ACO-DMT, a synthetic compound that mimics the effects of psilocybin but is significantly cheaper to produce. The cost disparity is stark: 4-ACO-DMT can be manufactured for approximately two cents per milligram, compared to the 40 cents per milligram cost of producing mushroom extract. This price difference is not trivial when scaled across the supply chain, resulting in a scenario where a 35mg 4-ACO-DMT chocolate bar can be retailed at $20, boasting a 90% profit margin, while a 3.5g organic psilocybin bar sells for $25, often at a loss.

The Unintended Consequences of Legalization

The legalization aimed to dismantle the illicit market by providing a regulated pathway for psilocybin access. However, it inadvertently contributed to the proliferation of synthetic alternatives like 4-ACO-DMT, manufactured in underground labs without regulation or oversight. This shift has not only saturated the market with potentially unsafe products but has also introduced a significant economic barrier to accessing regulated, potentially therapeutic entheogens.

Marginalized Communities at the Crossroads

The crux of the issue lies in the accessibility and affordability of entheogenic therapy. In states like Oregon, clinical treatments involving psilocybin can cost around $3,500 on average, a price point far beyond the reach of many, especially marginalized communities. Faced with such financial barriers, these individuals might opt for self-dosing with products like 4-ACO-DMT, which, despite their lower cost, come with higher risks and unknown long-term effects.

Reevaluating the Impact of Legalization

The scenario unfolding in Tucson serves as a potent reminder of the complexities surrounding the legalization of entheogenic substances. While the goal of providing safe and regulated access to psilocybin mushrooms is commendable, the reality has highlighted significant shortcomings, particularly the economic divide that it exacerbates. This divide not only marginalizes those who could potentially benefit the most from therapeutic psilocybin but also steers them toward riskier alternatives.

Moving Forward: A Call for Inclusive Policies

The experiences from Tucson call for a reevaluation of how entheogenic substances are legalized and regulated. To truly harness the therapeutic potential of entheogenic like psilocybin, legislation and policies must be designed with inclusivity at their core. This includes considering the socioeconomic disparities that influence access to treatment and finding ways to bridge these gaps. Whether through subsidized treatment programs, scaled pricing models, or increased investment in community-based therapeutic initiatives, the aim should be to ensure that the promise of entheogenic therapy does not become a privilege for the few but a accessible option for many.

In conclusion, while the legalization of psilocybin mushrooms in Tucson, AZ, represents a progressive step towards acknowledging and integrating the therapeutic potential of entheogens, it also highlights the need for careful consideration of the socioeconomic dynamics at play. The rise of 4-ACO-DMT as a cheaper alternative underscores the critical issue of accessibility and affordability, urging a rethink of how such policies are implemented to genuinely benefit a broader spectrum of society.

The Therapeutic Potential of Magnesium L-Threonate: Cognitive Enhancement and Its Role in Serotonergic Experiences

Magnesium L-Threonate, known as Magtein, has been the subject of various scientific studies due to its unique properties and potential health benefits. The research indicates that Magtein is particularly effective in enhancing cognitive functions, including memory and learning, by increasing brain magnesium levels. This increase in brain magnesium is linked to improved synaptic plasticity, which is crucial for cognitive health. Additionally, Magtein shows promise in neuroprotective aspects, potentially aiding in the prevention of age-related cognitive decline and neurological disorders by reducing brain inflammation and oxidative stress.

Furthermore, Magtein’s role in mood regulation and stress management has been explored, with studies suggesting that it may help in alleviating symptoms of anxiety and depression. In the context of serotonergic experiences, such as those induced by MDMA, Magtein’s cognitive and mood-stabilizing properties might theoretically assist in moderating the intensity of these experiences, although direct research in this area is still needed. The potential of Magtein to mitigate muscle and jaw cramping, commonly experienced during MDMA use, is also noted, likely due to its muscle relaxation properties.

The documents provided offer a detailed insight into the scientific understanding of Magnesium L-Threonate, highlighting its potential as a cognitive enhancer, neuroprotective agent, and a supplement that might have benefits during specific serotonergic experiences. However, further research is essential to fully understand its efficacy and safety in these contexts.

Introduction to Magnesium L-Threonate (Magtein)

Magnesium L-Threonate, commercially known as Magtein, is garnering significant interest in the scientific community for its unique cognitive benefits and neuroprotective properties. This novel form of magnesium, specifically designed for higher brain bioavailability, holds promise in several areas of mental and neurological health.

Cognitive Enhancement with Magtein

One of the most notable benefits of Magtein is its ability to enhance cognitive functions. The compound has been shown to effectively increase magnesium levels in the brain, which is crucial for maintaining synaptic plasticity – the foundation for learning and memory. By facilitating these neural processes, Magtein presents a potential breakthrough in improving cognitive capabilities, particularly memory and learning.

Neuroprotective Properties

Apart from cognitive enhancement, Magtein has demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects. Research indicates that it may offer protection against age-related cognitive decline and various neurological disorders. This protective mechanism is primarily attributed to its ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation within the brain, thereby preserving neuronal health and function.

Impact on Mood and Stress

Magnesium plays a vital role in regulating neurotransmitter systems, and Magtein’s impact on mood and stress management is a subject of increasing interest. Its supplementation has been associated with improved mood regulation and a reduction in symptoms related to anxiety and depression. This mood-stabilizing effect is particularly relevant in the context of mental health and well-being.

Magtein and Serotonergic Experiences

In the context of serotonergic experiences, such as those induced by MDMA, Magtein’s role becomes even more intriguing. While direct studies are limited, the cognitive and mood-regulating properties of Magtein suggest that it might assist in moderating the intensity of these experiences. Additionally, MDMA is known for its impact on serotonin levels in the brain, and Magtein’s potential neuroprotective benefits could be of significance in this context.

Reducing Muscle and Jaw Cramping During MDMA Experiences

A notable concern with MDMA use is muscle and jaw cramping, often manifesting as teeth grinding. Magnesium, including forms like Magtein, has been known to help mitigate these muscle tensions. Its role in muscle relaxation and nerve function could potentially reduce the intensity of such cramps during MDMA experiences, contributing to a more comfortable experience.

Safety Considerations and Recommendations

The safety profile of Magtein is supported by various studies, but its interaction with serotonergic agents like MDMA is not thoroughly established. It’s crucial for individuals considering Magtein use, especially in conjunction with substances like MDMA, to seek advice from healthcare professionals. The theoretical benefits, while promising, should be approached with caution until more research validates these interactions.


Magnesium L-Threonate presents a promising avenue for cognitive enhancement, neuroprotection, mood regulation, and potentially for mitigating some of the physical discomforts associated with MDMA use. As research continues to evolve, Magtein’s role in these areas may become clearer, offering new opportunities for therapeutic applications.


  1. https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.amazonaws.com/books/pdf/0e0f01a9-b21d-4d2b-87b3-f3815ad2a1aa.pdf
  2. https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.amazonaws.com/books/pdf/22934480-fa96-4634-8d14-c9bab9dea0d6.pdf
  3. https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.amazonaws.com/books/pdf/4a5a8770-6136-4dc4-99ac-6f4d127c15ae.pdf
  4. https://mushgptawsbucket.s3.amazonaws.com/books/pdf/0d9f0f6a-1da8-4c58-ac14-a8aee790c8f2.pdf
Is Sublingual Psilocin the Next Leap in Entheogenic Therapy?



The emerging field of entheogenic facilitation has witnessed the advent of sublingual psilocin as a novel method for administering the active compound found in psilocybin mushrooms. This technique, which entails placing the substance beneath the tongue to allow for direct absorption into the bloodstream, is becoming increasingly favored for its potential to mitigate inconsistent potencies and gastrointestinal disturbances often associated with traditional consumption. Yet, alongside its benefits, sublingual psilocin brings forth critical safety and responsible usage concerns that require attention.

Irregular Potency and GI Side Effects of Mushrooms

Users of psilocybin mushrooms often encounter unpredictable variations in strength, complicating the ability to foresee the intensity of the resulting entheogenic state. Such unpredictability can culminate in unexpectedly potent experiences or a complete lack thereof, which can lead to a sense of isolation or disappointment during group sessions.

Furthermore, ingesting psilocybin mushrooms can provoke gastrointestinal discomfort, including nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, detracting from the user’s overall experience and focus during the entheogenic journey.

The Sublingual Psilocin Solution

Sublingual psilocin has the potential to overcome these hurdles. By circumventing the digestive system, it promises a reduction in gastrointestinal side effects. Additionally, its direct entry into the circulatory system could offer more uniform and reliable effects, presenting an intriguing alternative for those seeking a consistent entheogenic experience.

Harm Reduction Points for Sublingual Psilocin

  1. Dosage: Initial doses should be conservative to gauge individual reactions to sublingual psilocin. Remember that additional doses can be taken, but the effects of an excessive initial dose cannot be reversed.
  2. Set and Setting: The importance of a secure, tranquil environment surrounded by trusted individuals cannot be overstated, as both mental state and setting are pivotal to the entheogenic experience.
  3. Supervision: Whenever feasible, the presence of a sober, knowledgeable guide is advisable to assist with any demanding experiences that may arise.
  4. Health Considerations: Prior to engaging with sublingual psilocin, consulting a healthcare professional is crucial, particularly for those with mental health histories or those on concurrent medications.
  5. Legal Considerations: Awareness of the legal context surrounding psilocybin and psilocin in one’s region is essential. Despite the burgeoning recognition of their therapeutic promise, these substances remain under legal scrutiny and are prohibited in numerous jurisdictions.


As a contemporary alternative to psilocybin mushrooms, sublingual psilocin extends the possibility of more predictable and smoother entheogenic experiences. Nevertheless, its responsible application and the cognizance of associated risks are paramount for a secure and enriching encounter. Adhering to harm reduction principles ensures the well-being and positive outcomes for those exploring the depths of sublingual psilocin therapy.


  1. Johnson, M., Richards, W., Griffiths, R., 2008. Human hallucinogen research: guidelines for safety. J. Psychopharmacol. 22 (6), 603 – 620.
  2. Johnson, M.W., Griffiths, R.R., Hendricks, P.S., Henningfield, J.E., 2018. The abuse potential of medical psilocybin according to the 8 factors of the Controlled Substances Act.
  3. Johnson, M.W., Hendricks, P.S., Barrett, F.S., Griffiths, R.R., 2019. Classic psychedelics: an integrative review of epidemiology, therapeutics, mystical experience, and brain network function. Pharmacol. Ther. 197, 83 – 102.
  4. Lamb, R.J., Griffiths, R.R., 1987. Self-injection of d,1-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the baboon. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 91 (3), 268 – 272.
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4813425/
  6. 1-s2.0-S0028390822002799-main.pdf, p. 17, pos. 166
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8602275/
  8. lsdmyproblemchild.pdf, p. 57, pos. 44
Entheogenic Churches: Why RFRA Exemption Is Not a One-Size-Fits-All Solution

Introduction: Setting the Scene

If you’re a founder or aspiring leader of an entheogenic religious not-for-profit, you may be looking to the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) as a safeguard against legal constraints. While RFRA has offered some groups a protective shield, it is not a straightforward or guaranteed path. This article aims to manage your expectations and provide a nuanced understanding of the complexities involved, especially if you’re part of an entheogenic community like the Entheology Project.

What Exactly is a Religious Exemption?

A religious exemption allows religious groups to bypass laws that “substantially burden” their practices. However, such exemptions are only granted when the government cannot justify its laws as the “least restrictive means” of achieving its goals. The case of the UDV group (Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, 2006) serves as a notable example.

The Myth of Easy Exemption: Case of Santo Daime

The Santo Daime church underwent a grueling legal battle to secure their RFRA exemption for the sacramental use of ayahuasca. This exemption is specific to them; each group must navigate its own complicated and often costly legal journey.

Defining ‘Religion’: A Complex Endeavor

Claiming an RFRA exemption requires proof that your beliefs are both “sincere” and “religious.” Courts usually refer to a set of factors, such as moral or ethical systems, ceremonies, and the comprehensiveness of beliefs, to determine the validity of a claim.

What Other RFRA Cases Teach Us

Reality Check: What This Means For You

  1. Prepare for Legal Complexity: Navigating RFRA is a complex legal endeavor requiring specialized expertise.
  2. Cost Implications: Legal battles can be financially draining.
  3. No Guarantees: Despite investing time and resources, success is not assured.


While the road to RFRA exemption is challenging, it’s not an impossible one. The Entheology Project offers an innovative approach by creating a collective framework for entheogenic churches and practitioners. Instead of individuals working in isolation or against each other, the Project aims to pool resources and knowledge to navigate the RFRA complexities. By becoming part of a larger, unified effort, individual members can leverage shared expertise and resources, thereby increasing the likelihood of securing an RFRA exemption for the entire community. This collective approach not only provides a stronger legal standing but also minimizes the financial risks involved, thereby turning the dream of religious freedom into an attainable reality.

This article should not be considered as legal advice. Always consult a qualified attorney for legal issues.

References and Case Laws

  1. United States v. Meyers, 95 F.3d 1475 (10th Cir. 1996).
  2. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal v. Ashcroft, 282 F. Supp. 2d 1236 (D.N.M. 2002).
  3. Africa v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 662 F.2d 1025 (3d Cir. 1981).
  4. Church of the Holy Light of the Queen v. Mukasey, 615 F. Supp. 2d 1210 (D. Or. 2009).
  5. Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, 546 U.S. 418 (2006).
  6. Tupper, K. W. (2008). The globalization of ayahuasca: Harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy, 19(4), 297-303.
  7. Chacruna Guide on RFRA and Best Practices for Psychedelic Churches.
  8. Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., 573 U.S. 682 (2014).
  9. Holt v. Hobbs, 574 U.S. 352 (2015).
  10. Navajo Nation v. United States Forest Service, 535 F.3d 1058 (9th Cir. 2008).
  11. RFRA Curiae Brief (UDV).pdf, p. 7, pos. 47.
  12. RFRA Curiae Brief (UDV).pdf, p. 11, pos. 117.

Healing the Mind: The Role of the Hippocampus in Memory and PTSD

The hippocampus, a region tucked within the medial temporal lobe of the brain, is a vital player in memory formation and spatial navigation. It is also one of the brain areas capable of neurogenesis—creating new neurons—which significantly contributes to memory. Various studies have revealed that a smaller hippocampus is often found in individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This suggests a relationship between hippocampal size and mental health, although it is not yet clear whether a smaller hippocampus is a consequence of PTSD or a predisposing factor.

Healing the Hippocampus: Hope for All Ages

There are promising avenues for increasing hippocampal size and function, irrespective of age:

  1. Physical Exercise: Aerobic activities like walking and running have been shown to enlarge the hippocampus and improve memory.
  2. Healthy Diet: Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats, like the Mediterranean diet, may contribute to hippocampal health.
  3. Mindfulness and Meditation: These practices have been associated with increased hippocampal density.
  4. Cognitive Stimulation: Activities like puzzles, reading, or learning new skills can stimulate hippocampal growth.

Special Considerations: Psilocybin and Memory

Emerging science suggests that psilocybin, a naturally occurring psychedelic, may stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis and aid in the reconsolidation of traumatic memories. This makes it an intriguing potential treatment for conditions like PTSD. However, it’s crucial to note that more research is required, and the effects can vary from person to person.

Who Stands to Gain the Most?

  1. Elderly Individuals: As age-related hippocampal shrinkage is a factor in cognitive decline, the elderly could benefit greatly from these interventions.
  2. Patients with PTSD or Chronic Stress: Given the link between PTSD and hippocampal size, these individuals may find these strategies especially beneficial.
  3. Individuals with Memory Impairments: Whether due to trauma or other neurological conditions, these individuals could see marked improvements.


The hippocampus plays a critical role in our ability to form and retrieve memories, and its health can be compromised by various factors, including aging and stress. However, the potential for improvement and even reversal of hippocampal-related issues is promising. The prospect of harnessing lifestyle changes and emerging treatments like psilocybin offers hope for individuals across age groups.

“Rev” Hooman
Founder / Entheology Project
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The Power of GABA and Amanita Mushrooms in Shaping Depression, Sleep, Mood and Anxiety

In this illuminating exploration into the shifting sands of mental health research, the focus moves away from serotonin to the emerging importance of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and muscimol 1. The article delves into how these molecules regulate mood, sleep, and anxiety, thereby challenging existing paradigms 2-3. From discussing natural ways to enhance GABA’s effects to investigating the untapped potential of muscimol, this comprehensive guide stands at the cusp of a transformative shift in mental health understanding 4-5. The article advocates for a cautious, evidence-based approach, acknowledging that these are early yet promising days in neuroscience.

The Role of GABA and Its Importance

There’s a growing consensus that GABA may be as important as serotonin in understanding conditions like depression. GABA serves as the brain’s calming agent, and imbalances can lead to a range of neurological issues:

GABA’s role is complex, and it’s just one piece of a larger puzzle.

Natural Ways to Enhance GABA

GABA is found in foods like tomatoes and white tea and can be boosted through various strategies:

Muscimol: The Newcomer on the Block

Muscimol, a derivative of Amanita pantherina mushrooms, is garnering attention for:

Benefits of Muscimol Over Alcohol

  1. Liver Health: One of the most significant advantages is the reduced strain on the liver, as muscimol doesn’t have the toxic effects commonly associated with alcohol.
  2. Cognitive Function: Unlike alcohol, which can impair cognitive abilities and decision-making, muscimol has shown promise in potentially enhancing certain cognitive functions.
  3. Caloric Intake: Alcohol is notoriously high in empty calories, contributing to weight gain. Muscimol has no such effect, making it a better choice for those conscious of their weight.
  4. Reduced Risk of Addiction: While further research is needed, early indications suggest that muscimol may have a lower potential for abuse and addiction compared to alcohol.
  5. Social Ease: An intriguing benefit of muscimol is its potential to facilitate easier social interactions, without the negative repercussions often associated with alcohol, such as aggression or impaired judgment.

Precautions and Future Research

It’s worth noting that while muscimol presents an exciting alternative to alcohol, it is a potent compound that requires responsible use and further study. The long-term effects are not yet fully understood, and it’s advisable to consult healthcare professionals before making any changes to your lifestyle or treatment plan.

By exploring healthier alternatives like muscimol, we may be taking a significant step toward a future where socializing and relaxation can be achieved without compromising our long-term health.

References and Sources

  1. Frontiers in Neuroscience 2020; 14: 923
  2. Cleveland Clinic, GABA
  3. Neuropharmacology January 2012; 62(1): 42-53
  4. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics September 14, 2017
  5. Big Think September 25, 2017
  6. Molecular Psychiatry July 20, 2022 DOI: 10.1038/s41380-022-01661-0
  7. Haidut.me August 1, 2023
  8. WSJ July 28, 2023
  9. ZeroHedge July 31, 2023
  10. http://haidut.me/?p=2302
  11. krediet-et-al-ijnp-2020.pdf, p. 13, pos. 298
  12. Molecular Psychiatry July 20, 2022 DOI: 10.1038/s41380-022-01661-0
  13. WSJ July 28, 2023
  14. ZeroHedge July 31, 2023
  15. The BMJ 20155; 350: h2435
The Interaction Between Magic Mushrooms and SSRIs in Therapy

Insights into Psilocybin and Antidepressant Interactions

As the field of psychedelic therapy burgeons, understanding the interactions between different medications becomes paramount. A prominent interaction under examination is between psilocybin, the psychoactive compound in magic mushrooms, and antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). This article delves into the implications of their concurrent use, offering essential insights for psychedelic therapy practitioners.

Unraveling the Interaction

A recent survey unveiled potential interactions between psilocybin and serotonergic antidepressants. Findings suggest that when taken simultaneously with SSRIs or SNRIs, the effects of psilocybin may be diminished. Given that both compounds influence the serotonergic system, this interplay may lead to reduced therapeutic efficacy or changes in the psychedelic journey.

Strategic Considerations for Psychedelic Therapy

  1. Client Assessment: For those contemplating psilocybin-assisted therapy and are on SSRIs or SNRIs, an exhaustive assessment is pivotal. This should encompass their medication details, mental health trajectory, treatment aspirations, and any potential adversities from combining the substances.
  2. Healthcare Provider Collaboration: Establishing rapport with healthcare professionals well-versed in psychedelic medicine is beneficial. This collaborative approach facilitates an in-depth grasp of the client’s medical backdrop, promoting safe and productive therapy sessions.
  3. SSRI/SNRI Discontinuation: Preliminary data hints at the benefits of pausing SSRI or SNRI use before psilocybin therapy. Yet, this decision warrants discussion with the client’s physician due to possible withdrawal symptoms. Crafting a supervised tapering strategy can diminish risks and streamline the transition.
  4. Informed Consent and Enlightenment: Comprehensive elucidation on the potential interactions of psilocybin with SSRIs and SNRIs is imperative. By discussing potential diminished psychedelic experiences, altered therapy results, and emphasizing professional supervision, clients can be better prepared.
  5. Continuous Professional Enrichment: In this rapidly advancing domain, continuous education is key. This can be achieved through regular professional development, conference attendance, and peer exchanges, ensuring practitioners remain au courant with psilocybin and antidepressant insights.

In Summation

For psychedelic therapy aficionados, grasping the nuances of psilocybin and antidepressant interactions is pivotal. Through rigorous client evaluations, interprofessional collaboration, and robust education, therapists can adeptly manage these combined treatments, enhancing therapeutic dividends for their clientele.

Disclaimer: This discourse is purely informational and shouldn’t be mistaken for medical or professional counsel. Professionals should seek guidance from seasoned healthcare providers and keep abreast of current research and protocols in psychedelic therapy.


Magic-Mushroom-Seekers-Guide-by-EP-v4.do…, p. 1, pos. 849

gukasyan-et-al-2023-attenuation-of-psilo…, p. 1, pos. 1

Minneapolis Deprioritizes Enforcement of Entheogenic Plants: A Step Towards Psychedelic Reform


In a groundbreaking move, the City of Minneapolis has issued Executive Order No. 2023-01, deprioritizing the enforcement of laws related to entheogenic plants. This executive order recognizes the potential benefits of entheogens, such as psilocybin mushrooms, ayahuasca, mescaline, and iboga, in addressing various physical and mental health conditions. By deprioritizing enforcement, Minneapolis aims to promote individual and community well-being while acknowledging the historical and cultural significance of entheogenic practices.


Entheogenic plants, which encompass a wide range of plants, fungi, and natural materials containing compounds like indole amines, tryptamines, and phenethylamines, have been used for centuries by indigenous cultures for healing and spiritual purposes. Scientific and clinical studies have shown promising results in using entheogens to address conditions such as chronic depression, severe anxiety, problematic substance abuse, post-traumatic stress, end-of-life anxiety, and grief.

Recognition of Indigenous Practices:

The executive order acknowledges the long-standing use of entheogens in indigenous cultures and their continued importance in ceremonies. Indigenous practices involving entheogens are already protected under the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993. The order respects and protects access to sacred plant medicines, such as peyote, used by the Native American Church.

Clinical Trials and FDA Sanctioned Research:

Several entheogenic plants, including psilocybin mushrooms, have undergone clinical trials sanctioned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of psilocybin-assisted therapy, paving the way for potential future medical applications. By deprioritizing enforcement, Minneapolis recognizes the importance of ongoing research and the potential of entheogens to contribute to evidence-based treatments.

Limitations and Legal Considerations:

It is crucial to note that while the executive order deprioritizes enforcement, it does not legalize the possession or sale of entheogenic plants. State and federal laws still apply, and individuals should consult legal professionals or local authorities for accurate and up-to-date information regarding the legality of entheogens in Minneapolis.

Implications and Future Possibilities:

Minneapolis’ decision to deprioritize enforcement of entheogenic plants marks a significant step towards psychedelic reform and the recognition of alternative approaches to mental health and well-being. By shifting the focus towards harm reduction and therapeutic potential, the city aims to create a more compassionate and inclusive approach to drug policy.

This executive order may also inspire other cities and jurisdictions to reconsider their stance on entheogenic plants. The growing body of research supporting their therapeutic benefits, combined with the recognition of indigenous practices, is gradually reshaping the conversation around psychedelics and their potential role in healing and personal growth.


Minneapolis’ Executive Order No. 2023-01 represents a progressive step towards acknowledging the potential benefits of entheogenic plants. By deprioritizing enforcement, the city aims to promote individual and community well-being, while recognizing the historical and cultural significance of entheogenic practices. This move highlights the need for further research, education, and open dialogue surrounding entheogens, ultimately paving the way for a more informed and compassionate approach to psychedelic substances.

This document was generated by MushGPT using the following references:

  1. EO-2023-01.pdf, p. 1, pos. 1
  2. usc42_ch8to39_Secs1401to3259@118-3.pdf, p. 1240, pos. 7

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